Introducing the New Zealand Seaweed Reading Answer: Unveiling the Enigmatic World of Seaweeds and Their Profound Impact on New Zealand’s Biodiversity. Discover the fascinating insights and ecological significance of these marine wonders as we delve into their diverse species, unique adaptations, and pivotal role in sustaining our coastal ecosystems.
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Section A – Nutritious value of seaweeds
Heading: Nutritious value of seaweeds
This section discusses the nutritional value of seaweeds. It mentions that seaweed is a highly nutritious food that contains a wide variety of minerals and vitamins necessary for the body’s health. It highlights the presence of elements such as aluminium, calcium, iodine, and iron in seaweed, which are important for overall health. The section also mentions the high iodine content in seaweed, which may explain the low incidence of goitre among populations that consume seaweeds.
Section B – Various products of seaweeds
Heading: Various products of seaweeds
In this section, it is mentioned that New Zealand has approximately 700 species of seaweed, some of which are unique to the country. The section highlights the commercial applications of certain species such as Gigartina, which can be used to extract agar. Agar has various commercial uses in industries such as seameal custard production, cough mixture manufacturing, confectionery making, cosmetics production, and more. The section also mentions that New Zealand-made agar is now available in health food shops.
Section C – Underuse of native species
Heading: Underuse of native species
This section discusses how despite having commercially profitable red seaweeds with agar content (Pterocladia, Gelidium, Chondrus, Gigartina), New Zealand used to import Irish moss from England and ready-made agar from Japan before 1940. It highlights that there was little use made of the native red seaweeds. However, it mentions that New Zealand has a considerable supply of agar-producing species like Pterocladia on the east coast and around Hokiangna.
Section D – Locations and features of different seaweeds
Heading: Locations and features of different seaweeds
This section provides information about where different types of seaweeds are found and their features. It mentions that seaweeds are divided into three classes based on color – red, brown, and green – and each class tends to live in specific locations. The section explains that green seaweeds are mainly found in shallow water, brown seaweeds belong to medium depths, and red seaweeds are plants of deeper water. It also describes the habitat preferences of specific species like sea bombs, Venus’ necklace, bull kelp, and more.
Section E – How seaweeds reproduce and grow
Heading: How seaweeds reproduce and grow
This section discusses the reproduction and growth of seaweeds. It mentions that seaweeds propagate through spores or fertilization of egg cells. Seaweeds do not have roots or flowers but absorb nourishment through their fronds when surrounded by water. The section explains that the base or “holdfast” of seaweed is an attaching organ rather than an absorbing one.
Section F – Why it doesn’t dry or sink
Heading: Why it doesn’t dry or sink
In this section, various mechanisms used by different seaweed species to maintain buoyancy or resist drying out are discussed. Some large seaweeds have air-filled floats or large cells filled with air for buoyancy. Others have swollen stems containing water or distinctive shapes to reduce dehydration when exposed to the air. Certain species have slimy fluid or mucilage coating on their surface for protection against dehydration and wave action.
Flow chart completion:
7) New Zealand carrageen
Answer: agar (from which seameal custard is made)
Locate: Section B
10) cough mixture
Answer: Gigartina (used in cough mixture)
Locate: Section B
11) A – Can resist exposure to sunlight at high-water mark
Locate: Section D
12) C – Grow in far open sea water
Locate: Section D
13) B – Share their habitat with karengo
Locate: Section D
Section A: Nutritious value of seaweeds
Seaweed is a highly nutritious food that contains a wide variety of minerals necessary for the body’s health. It absorbs and concentrates traces of minerals such as aluminium, barium, calcium, chlorine, copper, iodine, and iron from the surrounding environment. These minerals are naturally produced by erosion and carried to the seaweed beds by river and sea currents. Seaweeds are also rich in vitamins, including vitamin C. In fact, Eskimos obtain a high proportion of their vitamin C requirements from the seaweeds they consume. The high iodine content in seaweed may explain why there is a low incidence of goitre among populations that regularly consume seaweeds, such as the Japanese and Maori people.
Some research into old Maori eating customs suggests that seaweeds were commonly used in making jellies along with fresh fruit, nuts, and various other fruits that grew naturally or were brought by settlers and explorers. The nutritive value of seaweed has long been recognized for its health benefits.
Overall, seaweed is not just a weed but a valuable source of nutrition with its abundance of minerals and vitamins.
Nutrients found in seaweeds:
Vitamins found in seaweeds:
– Vitamin C
Section B: Various products of seaweeds
Seaweeds in New Zealand have a wide range of commercial applications due to the various products that can be derived from them. One such product is agar, which can be extracted from species like Gigartina and used in a variety of industries. Agar has gel-forming properties and is commonly used in the production of seameal custard, cough mixture, confectionery, cosmetics, paint, leather, duplicating pads, and even toothpaste. During World War II, New Zealand Gigartina was sent to Australia to be used in toothpaste.
In addition to agar, there are other valuable products that can be obtained from seaweeds. Carrageen or Irish moss is another type of seaweed that is commercially profitable. New Zealand has approximately 30 species of Gigartina, which are often referred to as the New Zealand carrageens. These species have great commercial application and can be used in various industries such as food processing, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
The availability of these seaweed products has increased over time. Before 1940, New Zealand used to import Irish moss from England and ready-made agar from Japan. However, with the recognition of the abundant red seaweeds in New Zealand and their potential for commercial use, local production of agar became possible. Nowadays, New Zealand-made agar can be found in health food shops.
Overall, the various products derived from seaweeds offer numerous opportunities for commercial utilization and contribute to the economic value of these marine resources in New Zealand.
Section C: Underuse of native species
The underutilization of native seaweed species in New Zealand is a significant issue. Despite the country’s abundance of commercially profitable red seaweeds, such as Pterocladia, Gelidium, Chondrus, and Gigartina, little use was made of them until 1940. Instead, New Zealand used to import Irish moss (Chondrus crispus) from England and ready-made agar from Japan.
Interestingly, the distribution of Gigartina species is mainly confined to certain areas, particularly on the east coast of the North Island. However, even in these areas where its occurrence is considered rare, there are still considerable supplies of two species of Pterocladia that can be used for agar production. Fortunately, New Zealand-made agar is now available in health food shops.
The underuse of native seaweed species in New Zealand represents a missed opportunity for economic growth and sustainable utilization. With the vast potential for commercial applications in various industries like food, cosmetics, and manufacturing, it is crucial to raise awareness about the value and benefits of these native seaweeds. By promoting their use and exploring innovative ways to incorporate them into different products and industries, New Zealand can tap into the immense potential that its unique seaweed species offer.
Section D: Locations and features of different seaweeds
Seaweeds are classified into three categories based on their color – red, brown, and green. Each category tends to thrive in specific locations. However, it is important to note that few seaweeds are entirely one color, and some species can change color when they dry out. For example, a brown seaweed may turn black, or a red seaweed may appear black, brown, pink, or purple. Despite these variations in color, the factors that determine where a seaweed will grow are quite precise, leading to well-defined zones for each category.
Green seaweeds are primarily found in shallow waters. They belong to the class of algae that thrives in these environments. Brown seaweeds typically inhabit medium depths and can be found on flat rock surfaces near mid-level tides. Some examples include sea bombs and Venus’ necklace. The purple laver or Maori karengo is also found in this location and resembles a reddish-purple lettuce.
Red seaweeds are mostly found in deeper waters. They tend to grow on deep-water rocks along open coasts that are exposed only at very low tide. Examples of red seaweeds include bull kelp and strap weeds.
The distribution of seaweeds is influenced by factors such as radiation from the sun, temperature levels, and the length of time they are immersed in water. These factors contribute to the zoning of different seaweed species along coastlines.
Overall, understanding the locations and features of different seaweeds helps researchers and enthusiasts identify them more easily and appreciate their diverse habitats.
Section E: How seaweeds reproduce and grow
Section E: How seaweeds reproduce and grow
Seaweeds reproduce and grow through two main methods – spores and fertilization of egg cells. Unlike land plants, seaweeds do not have roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, or seeds. They absorb their nourishment through their fronds when they are surrounded by water. The base or “holdfast” of seaweeds serves as an attaching organ rather than an absorbing one.
Propagation of seaweeds occurs through the release of spores or the fertilization of egg cells. These reproductive structures are dispersed in the water and can settle on suitable substrates to grow into new seaweed plants. Seaweeds have evolved various strategies to ensure successful reproduction and growth in their marine environment.
Understanding how seaweeds reproduce and grow is important for their conservation and sustainable use. It allows researchers and scientists to study their life cycles, population dynamics, and ecological roles in marine ecosystems. By studying these processes, we can better understand the biology and ecology of seaweeds and develop strategies for their cultivation, management, and utilization.
In conclusion, seaweeds reproduce through spores or fertilization of egg cells and do not have roots or flowers like land plants. Their ability to absorb nutrients through their fronds while submerged in water allows them to thrive in the marine environment. Understanding the reproduction and growth of seaweeds is crucial for their conservation and sustainable use.
Section F: Why it doesn’t dry or sink
Section F: Why it doesn’t dry or sink
Seaweeds have various mechanisms to prevent themselves from drying out or sinking. Some larger seaweeds maintain buoyancy by having air-filled floats, which help them stay afloat in the water. For example, bull kelp has large cells filled with air that provide buoyancy. Other seaweeds that spend a significant amount of time exposed to the air have adaptations to reduce dehydration. They may have swollen stems or nodules that contain water, such as Venus’ necklace, or they may have a distinctive shape like a sea bomb.
Additionally, some seaweeds have slimy fluids or a coating of mucilage on their surface to retain moisture and prevent drying out. This is particularly important for seaweeds living in intertidal zones where they are exposed to both air and water during tidal changes. The mucilage coating also serves to protect these seaweeds from the turbulent action of waves.
Overall, these adaptations allow seaweeds to survive in their marine environments without drying out or sinking, ensuring their continued growth and reproduction.
Note: The content provided here is an example response and may not reflect the actual content of Section F in the original passage.
In conclusion, the study on New Zealand seaweed reading has shed light on its potential in various industries such as food, agriculture, and medicine. The findings highlight the rich biodiversity and nutritional value of these marine plants, emphasizing the need for further research and sustainable practices. Harnessing the benefits of New Zealand seaweed can not only contribute to economic growth but also provide environmentally-friendly solutions to global challenges.